GPFARM: Great Plains Framework for Agricultural Resource Management USDA-ARS, Great Plains Systems Research Unit and Colorado State University

GPFARM is a simulation model computer software package. It incorporates state of the art knowledge in agronomy, animal science, economics, weed science and risk management into a user-friendly, decision-support tool. Users of GPFARM can test alternative management strategies that may lead to improvements in economic and environmental sustainability of their agricultural operations.

gpfarm_cover
GPFARM Decision Support System (DSS) Objective:
Develop decision-support system (DSS) tool that is capable of simulating and analyzing 10-50 year farm/ranch production plans with respect to crop and livestock growth, water, nutrient, and pest management along with their associated economic and environmental risks. GPFARM DSS Benefits
GPFARM integrates state of the art agricultural science knowledge with economic and environmental analysis into a whole-enterprise evaluation. Results from the DSS provide the user with information for making management decisions that promote sustainable agriculture.
GPFARM provides feedback on management and technology and assists in determining areas requiring further research and development. This is an evolutionary process that ties farm management, research and technology transfer closely together.
GPFARM serves to bring together (scientists from different disciplines) with (producers and consultants) to solve complex problems in agriculture.
Products within GPFARM
A user-friendly, farm/ranch simulation model that produces output for various agricultural production systems and management options with respect to economics, environmental impact and sustainability.

A detailed whole farm/ranch economic analysis package (PAL Budgeting Program).
A web based, agricultural information system.
A stand-alone weed management model (WISDEM).
Tools to analyze weed pressure effects and N fertilizer requirements.
Analysis tools including graphics, economics, and risk analysis.
GIS tools.

A Note About ‘Simulation’

Simulation is a common computer programming term and is used throughout this document. In the computer programming world it means “The process of imitating a real phenomenon with a set of mathematical formulas. Advanced computer programs can simulate weather conditions, chemical reactions, atomic reactions, even biological processes.” (From: Webopedia an online dictionary. The URL is http://www.webopedia.com/ ). In this context, simulation does not mean fake, counterfeit or unreal.
A forecast is “to calculate or predict (some future event or condition) usually as a result of rational study and analysis of available pertinent data especially to predict (weather conditions) on the basis of correlated meteorological observations.” (From: Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981, G & C Merriam and Co. 1532 pps.)
GPFARM is a computer program that runs the components of the model and produces a simulation (output) of what is likely to happen with the given set up inputs to the program. In this sense a simulation is similar to a forecast in that the output or results of the model are used to predict what is likely to happen given a particular set of circumstances. Therefore, simulation and forecast can be used rather interchangeably.
Important Notes
It is very important to never use any character keys in naming a file, project, scenario, field or management unit.
Use only upper and lower case letters as well as the digits 0 – 9.
If you are installing under Windows XP Home, after installing GPFARM go to the GPFARM directory and right click. Go into properties and click on sharing. The GPFARM directory needs to be shared on Windows XP Home for GPFARM to function normally.
Save the Scenario
To save the current scenario click the save scenario icon or click on the Scenario\Save menu item.
You will be asked if you want to save it as the current scenario. Answer Yes if you do; answer No if you want to name it something else.
The Save Scenario screen will appear where you can give the scenario a new name and, thereby, save a different version of the scenario. If you don’t want to save another version of the scenario press the Cancel button.

You will then be asked if you want to overwrite the current scenario? If you do, answer Yes. If you do not want to overwrite the current scenario but still want to save this version answer No and you will be returned to the Save Scenario screen If you simply want to get out of this screen and continue working press the Cancel button. Keep in mind that nothing has been saved if you Cancel out of the screen.
Save the Project
Save the Farm/Ranch – this will save the project and overwrite what was already saved. You will be asked if you want to overwrite the current scenario. If you answer No the current project will not be saved and you will loose any changes you made.
Save As Farm/Ranch – this will save the current project under a new name. You will be asked to name the project which will create a new .gpf file. This is good to do if you want to keep the project with the current practices intact. Then you can create a modified version of the current operation and compare the output of the two projects.
Close the Project
Close the Farm/Ranch – use this to close the project. You will be asked if you want to save the current scenario. Be aware if you answer No you will lose any changes you made. If this is a new scenario and you do not save it you will loose the entire scenario.
Delete a Project/Scenario
To delete a project press the Delete icon or access the Farm/Ranch/Delete menu item. The entire project will be deleted.
You can use the Project Manager to delete projects, or scenarios. Press the Manager icon or access the Project Manager menu item.
Expand the projects to see the scenarios within the projects by clicking on the ‘+’ next to the project name. Select a project or scenario and press the Add button. It will be written to the Delete list.
If you decide not to delete a selection click on the name and press the Remove button and it will be removed from the delete list and written back to the available list.
When you have selected all that you want to delete, press the Delete button.
You will be asked to confirm that you want to proceed with the deletions.
project_manager
Contacting GPFARM
For information about the GPFARM project, please contact the Great Plains Systems Research Unit (970) 490-8300 or write us using electronic mail (General_E-Mail@gpsr.ars.usda.gov). You may also wish to visit our Internet web site http://gpsr.ars.usda.gov

Direct mail inquiries to:

GPFARM

Great Plains Systems Research Unit

P.O. Box "E"

Fort Collins, Colorado USA, 80522

Phone Number: (970) 490-8300

Fax Number: (970) 490-8310

Minimum System Requirements

Hardware

Pentium/200 with 64 Mbytes of RAM (128 Mbytes RAM recommended)
Note: A faster Pentium or Pentium 2 CPU computer with 64+ Mbytes of RAM would enable faster processing of the program.
200 Mbytes free hard disk space
CD-ROM
SVGA monitor set at a resolution of 800x600 and small fonts
100 - 200 Mbytes of disk space for the Information System or historical climate databases

Software

Microsoft Windows® 98, 98SE, NT4, 2000, ME or XP.
Microsoft Access 97 or 2000 (optional but recommended)
Installation Options

Install GPFARM

From the GPFARM CD.
NOTE: If you already have a version of GPFARM on your hard drive be sure to un-install it before installing a new version or re-installing an old version.
NOTE: If you are installing under Windows XP Home, after installing GPFARM go to the GPFARM directory and right click. Go into properties and click on sharing. The GPFARM directory needs to be shared on Windows XP Home for GPFARM to function normally.

Install GPFARM Information System

You can install the GPFARM Information System from the GPFARM CD and save it to your hard drive. However, the Information System is quite large! Instead you may want to access it from the GPFARM CD whenever you need it.
You can access the GPFARM Information System from the web at http://gpsr.ars.usda.gov and select the GPFARM Information System.

NOTE: Please see the Online Help for more detailed instructions for installing and un-installing GPFARM.

Tools in GPFARM

Several “Tools” have been (or will be) included with GPFARM to assist users. These include:
An Online Help System. An extensive online Help System has been packaged with GPFARM to provide assistance in using GPFARM.
An Internet based Information System. This is a tool to aid users in accessing pertinent information on the World Wide Web. It is packaged with GPFARM and is also available on the Web at the following URL: http://infosys.ars.usda.gov/
Herbicide Links. This is a table contained in the Help System that provides links to the labels and Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for each herbicide used in GPFARM. However, there are, some herbicides for which labels and MSDS’s could not be found. Therefore there are no links for these herbicides even though they are still active (used and registered with the EPA).
Weed Images. This is a section found in the Help System with images and information about common weeds to aid the user in identifying weeds and to provide additional information about the growth of each weed.
In future releases of GPFARM a FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) will be included.
Online Help System
GPFARM has an online Help System available from the menu bar. Click on the Help icon to access the system.
Here you will find detailed help for each screen and topic in GPFARM.
Many pages have links to web sites that are relevant to the topic.
ICON_HELP

Disclaimer

The use of trade, firm, or corporation names in the GPFARM Help System, the GPFARM DSS or the GPFARM Information System is for the information and convenience of the reader. Such use does not constitute an official endorsement or approval by the U.S.D.A. Agricultural Research Service, of any product or service to the exclusion of others that may be suitable.
Internet Explorer 5.0

* GPFARM is using Microsoft Internet Explorer Administration Kit to redistribute Internet Explorer 5.0.

Farm/Ranch Overview
This is an example of how GPFARM looks with an existing Farm/Ranch project.
The Farm/Ranch, which is the Project, is the main level in GPFARM.
The Farm/Ranch is composed of fields and must have at least one field defined.
Fields are composed of one or more Management Units (MU). Every Farm/Ranch must have at least one Management Unit defined with a climate.
There is a maximum of 60 MU’s and therefore 60 fields.
You may want to name each field with township, range and section and give a descriptive name to the mu(s) within the field. Be careful not to use any character keys in the names.
FARM_RANCH_LAYOUT
Projects and Scenarios
Projects are the way GPFARM organizes the Farm/Ranch information to run the simulation.
A project has only one Farm/Ranch and is therefore equal to the Farm/Ranch.
A Project is composed of one or more scenarios.
A scenario is one set of management or resource schemes for a particular Farm/Ranch.
A farm/ranch can have more than one scenario and most likely should have at least two: the baseline and another version with changes to the baseline for comparing the changes in management or resources.

Management Units

A Management Unit (MU) is a land unit that has one and only one type of management or system of management. It is the basis for the simulation and can have only one soil defined on it.
An MU is either cropland or rangeland. It has a unique combination of resources (soil, slope, residues, etc.) and management operations (rotation, events) on it.
An MU is the smallest, unit in GPFARM. The maximum number of MUs GPFARM can handle is 60. NOTE: The maximum number of years you can run in a simulation is 50.
Setup Overview
1.
Determine the number of fields on the Farm/Ranch and the number of management units per field.
2.
Select the Climate for the Whole Farm from either historic or generated data. (See Climate for an example)
3.
Create the Layout of the Farm/Ranch. (See Farm/Ranch Layout for an example). This is optional – you can set up the Farm/Ranch without creating a pictorial view of the Farm/Ranch.
4.
Choose the Resources for each Management Unit.
5.
Choose the Operations for each Management Unit.
Simulation Dates
GPFARM can start or end on any day of the year. GPFARM will check before running the simulation to insure that the chosen climate covers the number of years determined by start and end dates of the simulation.
Input variables with the word ‘Initial’ should reflect the state of that variable on the starting date of the simulation.
The maximum simulation period is 50 years. Although, the simulation can start on any day, it must start before a planting or calving event. If the end date occurs before the last day of the year, there will be no output for that year.
Whole Farm/Ranch Inputs
Some inputs to GPFARM are Whole Farm inputs. That is, they apply to the entire farm/ranch and do not change between management units.
These include:
Climate
Economics - which includes the default values supplied with GPFARM and investments. Note: the cost of specific investments can be allocated to specific land units or applied to the whole farm/ranch so investments may not always be a whole farm type of input.
Equipment
Irrigation Systems
Range/Livestock – the entire herd moves from one management unit to another and therefore is always managed as one unit.
Farm/Ranch Setup
A Farm/Ranch Setup Wizard is available to aid you in setting up the Farm/Ranch.
Three setup items are checked by default and are required to be completed for most simulations. Three additional items are available in the wizard.
A climate must be specified. Default economic values should be checked and changed if necessary. Equipment should always be setup for the Farm/Ranch.
Additionally, you may want to define Investments, Range/Livestock and Irrigation Systems. By checking those boxes, GPFARM keeps track for you of the information you intend to enter.
If you don’t use the wizard you will need to enter all the information.

FARM_RANCH_SETUP_WIZARD
Climate
GPFARM can use generated or historical climate. GPFARM can generate or create a climate for your region or you may select a climate station from the climate map and the historical climate from that station will be used in the simulation.
You may also enter your own historical climate for your farm/ranch. Microsoft Access 97 or 2000 is required to enter your own climate to the database.
Climate is required for GPFARM to run the simulation. (NOTE: If a simulation won’t run check to see if a climate has been defined.)
climate_generated
Economics – Default Values
Default Values costs or rates are provided for the following:
Irrigation
Machinery
Crops
Labor
Investment Interest
Be sure to check each of these values and modify them to suit your operation.
DEFAULT_IRRIGATION
Economics - Investments
Investments made in the Farm/Ranch need to be defined at the whole farm level.
These are generally capital improvements and the cost can either be applied to a single Management Unit or it can be dispersed across all Management Units.
Examples include buildings, storage facilities, grassed waterways, etc.
INVESTMENT_SELECTION
Equipment
Equipment for Farm/Ranch operations must be set up for the whole farm.
You should build the equipment list for the farm/ranch and then choose the appropriate pieces of equipment for each operation. (See Operations)
A default equipment database is provided with GPFARM. You can select equipment from this table, modify pieces of equipment to more accurately match your own, or define new equipment.
Click on the piece of equipment on the left list and drag it to the right list to include it in the equipment list for the project.
Click on View Costs to see the $/Acre for each piece of equipment on the Equipment Costs screen. You can edit these values by choosing the annual view. NOTE: Make these changes after you modify or create a piece of equipment otherwise the changes made in Equipment Costs will be overwritten by changes made in modifying/creating equipment.
equipment_selection_2
Irrigation Systems
Irrigation systems must be defined by naming the system and entering information about the system.
If the irrigation system is powered by a pump, information is required for the pump as well.
Describe the irrigation system, specify the water supply, how the system efficiency is determined, the condition of the system and the method of application. Also, enter labor requirements.
NOTE: Sprinkler irrigation is the only one currently available.
IRRIGATION_SYSTEM
Range/Livestock
Define the Range/Livestock component at the whole farm level.
Currently, only cow/calf operations are allowed.
There are several tabs requiring information about your livestock operation. Enter information for the following:
Herd Information – breed, sex, number, etc.
Feed Sources – hay, grains, etc.
Livestock Expenses – vaccination, castration, etc.
Revenue
Financial/Capital
Annual Labor
Machinery/Equipment (related to livestock operations)
The costs are calculated per cow. That is, the cows bear the cost of the livestock expenses.
livestock_range_herd_info
Input Reports
Several reports are available to view the inputs that you have entered.
Select View Inputs from the Inputs icon or from the Scenario/View Inputs menu item.
On the Scenario Inputs screen, choose the report you would like generated.
You must have entered information or that report will be blank.
You can view reports for:
Climate Graph
Climate Table
Equipment
Investments
Operations
Range
Resources
scenario_inputs
Menu to Modify Management Units
To modify the information about an MU, select Layout, Management Unit, Modify from the drop down menu.
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Select a Management Unit
To modify the information about an MU, select Layout, Management Unit, Modify from the drop down menu.
Select the MU to be modified from the Farm Ranch List and click OK.
modify 2
Modify Management Unit Setup
The next screen will show information about the MU.
You can edit the MU name, Cropland/Rangeland designation, irrigation, and acreage.
The Field Name cannot be modified without deleting the whole MU and drawing it again.
Use the Layout, Management Unit, Delete option to remove the MU and begin again.
modify 3
Tools to Modify Management Units
Other tools that are of use in modifying an MU include:
(1) View, which show the MU in relation to the rest of the Farm/Ranch.
(2) Select, which when selected and pointed at an MU allows you to move that MU.
(3) ABC (Text), which allows you to add text to an MU, Field, or anywhere on the screen.
(4) Delete, used in conjunction with the Select tool. Point to an MU or block of text with the Select tool then click on Delete to remove that MU and/or text.
modify 4 copy
Create a New Farm
To begin creating your own farm or ranch in GPFARM, first start with a blank screen.
Do this by either clicking the Close icon or Close under the Farm/Ranch menu tab (only necessary if a project is already loaded).
The screen should look like the example below.
To begin, click on the New icon or New under the Farm/Ranch menu tab.
If New is not an option, the current project has not been closed.
opening screen
Name the Farm
The first screen in creating your own project asks you to name the project and scenario and to describe the two.
Only the first box, Project Name, must be filled in to proceed. The other two are optional.
When naming files, projects, scenarios, etc. use only letters and numbers, never use symbols such as: \ / | ? : * # ( ) { } [ ], etc.
Click OK after giving the project a name.

new project screen1
Farm Information
The next screen asks you to select the State (Colorado, Wyoming, Kansas, or Nebraska).
Now you must choose whether you want to sketch field boundaries or simply enter then necessary information in the appropriate tables.
If you choose to sketch your fields you can choose to sketch on the screen or over a farm map. (see Importing Bitmaps)
You can also enter field or MU information on this screen in the description box. Click OK when you are done.
what state
Import a Farm Map
You can import a map of your Farm/Ranch and draw the fields and mu’s on the map.
The map must be in bitmap (.bmp) format.
Use the Farm/Ranch Information screen to import the bitmap. Press the Add Farm Map button to begin the import. NOTE: bitmap images can be quite large so this may take a few seconds.
FARM_RANCH_INFO_DESKTOP MAP_EXAMPLE
Farm Setup Wizard
The next screen shows Farm/Ranch Setup Wizard.
The Setup Wizard is designed to help keep track of the information that is needed for your project.
farmranch setup wizard
Required Farm Setup Information
The next three screens concern Climate, Economic Default Values, and Equipment Setup.
These are required for an accurate set-up of your farm/ranch. Irrigation Systems and Livestock/Range are only necessary if they are part of your farm/ranch operation.
climate_generated DEFAULT_IRRIGATION equipment_selection_2
Remaining Farm Setup Tasks
This screen reminds you that you have three tasks left to complete before running the simulation.
Farm/Ranch Layout refers to sketching fields on either the brown template or on an imported image. This is required only if you checked “Sketch Farm/Ranch Management Units” on the Farm/Ranch Information screen.
Management (Resources and Operations) are the last two tasks to be completed and refer to choosing the soils, etc. and farm practices relevant to the field.
After these items are complete you are ready to run the simulation.
fr setup wizard finished
First Step in Drawing a Management Unit
Starting from either a new scenario or one you wish to modify, click the Layout icon from the menu bar (or from Build, Farm/Ranch Layout or right-click the mouse and select Management Unit, Add).
drawing 1
Add a Management Unit
Select Management Unit from the drop-down menu.
Next, select Add
drawing 2 drawing 3
Drawing Tools
The next screen will give you information on the three drawing tools.
To avoid seeing this screen in the future click on the Don’t Show This Again box.
After familiarizing yourself with the drawing tools click Continue.
drawing 4
How to Draw a Management Unit
The three drawing tools are: Square, Circle, and Polygon.
Position the cursor (pointing hand) where you want the MU to begin, then with the right-click button held down, drag the cursor to create the MU size desired.
Use the Select icon later if you want to move the MU and label.
drawing 9 copy
Management Unit Setup
After drawing the shape of the MU the Management Unit Set Up screen will appear.
Enter the MU name (1) and the field name (2). Use only letters and/or numbers.
Specify if the MU is Cropland or Rangeland (3).
If irrigation is required for this MU, check the box labeled Irrigation (4).
Enter the size of the MU (5). Enter MU information in box (6).
Click OK when done. The Management Unit Set Up Wizard will appear next and guide you through Resources and Operations set up for this MU.
drawing 6 copy
Management Unit Types
Management Units selected for Cropland will appear green, Rangeland MUs will appear yellow.
drawing 7 drawing 8
Create a New Ranch
To begin creating your own farm or ranch in GPFARM, first start with a blank screen.
Do this by either clicking the Close icon or Close under the Farm/Ranch menu tab.
The screen should look like the example below.
To begin, click on the New icon or New under the Farm/Ranch menu tab.
If New is not an option, the current project has not been closed.
opening screen
Name the Ranch
The first screen in creating your own project ask you to name the project and scenario and to describe the two.
Only the first box, Project Name, must be filled in to proceed. The other two are optional.
When naming files, projects, scenarios, etc. use only letters and numbers, never use symbols such as: \ / | ? : * # ( ) { } [ ], etc.
Click OK after giving the project a name.
new project screen1
Ranch Information
The next screen asks you to select the State (Colorado, Wyoming, Kansas, or Nebraska).
Now you must choose whether you want to sketch field boundaries or simply enter then necessary information in to the appropriate tables.
If you choose to sketch your fields you can choose to sketch on the screen or over a farm map. (see Importing Bitmaps)
You can also enter field or MU information on this screen. Click OK when you are done.
what state
Import a Ranch Map
You can import a map of your Farm/Ranch and draw the fields and mu’s on the map.
The map must be in bitmap (.bmp) format.
Use the Farm/Ranch Information screen to import the bitmap. Press the Add Farm Map button to begin the import. NOTE: bitmap images can be quite large so this may take a few seconds.
FARM_RANCH_INFO_DESKTOP MAP_EXAMPLE
Ranch Setup Wizard
The next screen shows Farm/Ranch Setup Wizard.
The Setup Wizard is designed to help keep track of the information that is needed for your project.

farm_ranch_setup_wizard_screen_ranch
Required Ranch Setup Information
The next three slides concern Climate, Economic Default Values, and Equipment Setup.
climate_generated DEFAULT_IRRIGATION equipment_selection_2
Remaining Ranch Setup Tasks
This screen reminds you that you have three task left to complete before running the simulation.
Farm/Ranch Layout refers to sketching fields on either the brown template or on an imported image. (Required only if the “Sketch Farm/Ranch” box was checked on the Farm/Ranch Information screen.)
Management (Resources and Operations) are the last two tasks to be completed and refer to choosing the soils, etc. and farm practices relevant to the field.
After these items are complete you are ready to run the simulation.
fr setup wizard finished
Animal Information Reminder
This screen reminds you that you must now fill out information on your cattle herd.
Click on OK to advance to the Livestock/Herd Information screen.
fillout ranch
Livestock Range Information
This series of screens contains information about your herd, winter feed and other supplement, expenses, and livestock operations.
Most of these screens are self-explanatory.
cattle1
Herd Information
This screen asks for information specific to your herd.
Choose the breed or dominant breed of your cattle herd and check the default values for Maximum Supplement, Daily Animal Requirement, Milk Production, etc.
Make sure the Initial Herd Class Distribution is accurate because these are the values that will be carried through the whole scientific simulation.
cattle1
Feed Sources
This screen asks for information on winter feed and other supplement.
GPFARM has a special feature that will calculate the least-cost option for supplement feeding. Any time that the livestock require supplement because of lack of forage, supplement will automatically be fed.
The nutritional content of each supplement can be adjusted if you have values for it. If you don’t, the default values are reasonable averages for that type of forage. (See the appendix under Default Values for detailed supplement information.)
cattle2
Livestock Expenses
This screen concerns expenses associated with livestock production other than supplement.
Vet expenses, trucking, castrating (Animal Management) are some examples of livestock expenses.
cattle3
Revenue
The revenue screen shows animal type, price per head, and sale date.
Fill in this screen with desired or expected values. GPFARM will use these numbers for doing an economic analysis without a simulation.
Simulation economic values are calculated by GPFARM for Breakeven analysis.
cattle4
Financial/Capital
The Financial/Capital screen is available if you wish to enter information on production loans or depreciation on structures and other capital improvements, as well other expenses related to livestock production.
cattle6
Annual Labor
This screen, Annual Labor Used, refers to labor costs associated with the animals only. For instance, labor hired for branding, castrating, etc. Other labor costs, not associated directly with the animals, can be enter in Operations section.
cattle7
Resources
The Resources for each Management Unit needs to be defined. This is done in the Farm/Ranch Window at the Management Unit level.
For each Management Unit, define the following resources if it applies:
Soil Information – soils data must be entered to successfully run a simulation. NOTE: The following items can be run with the defaults, but the more information you provide the better GPFARM will simulate your farm or ranch.
Residue Cover
Topography
Conservation Planning
Weed Population
Forage – available only for rangeland MU’s
RESOURCES_SETUP_SOIL_F
Soil Information
Soil information needs to be defined for each MU.
First choose the soil series from the GPFARM supplied Soil database that best describes the MU. You can then edit certain values to ‘customize’ it for your location by using the Advanced Layer Information button.
You may also define your own soil information. You will first need to enter the soil series information and then enter the layer information on the Soil Information Resource screen.
You can also define a root or water restrictive layer by using the Identify Restrictive Layers button.
RESOURCES_SETUP_SOIL_F
Residue Cover - Cropland
Residue cover is the percent of soil surface covered by residue. Also enter the proportion that is standing and the proportion that is flat.
Enter the amount of the residue as well.
You can also specify the type of residue and the random roughness of the residue. The random roughness is simply a descriptive term.
RESOURCES_SETUP_RESIDUE
Residue Cover - Rangeland
This is basically the same as the Residue Cover for Cropland with the exception of Residue Type.
The only Residue Type available is Prairie Litter and this is the default.
resources_setup_residue_rangeland
Topography - Cropland
Topographic information should be entered for the Management Unit to correctly predict crop yield and soil erosion.
The slope profile is the shape of slope of the MU. Information about the slope length and slope segments should be entered as well.
If you do not have data for this information, the defaults will be sufficient.
Please see the online Help System for detailed help in entering topographic information.
resources_setup_topography
Topography - Rangeland
topography_rangeland
Enter the length and slope % for each slope segment.
You can view the slope in line or curve view.
If you do not have data for this information, the defaults are sufficient.
Please see the online Help System for detailed help in entering topographic information.
Conservation Planning - Cropland
Conservation Planning and Topography are inter-related.
Information should be entered for Soil Erodibility, Overland Flow and Wind Erosion.
The Slope Length on the Topography tab impacts the Conservation Planning information.
If you do not have data for this information, the defaults are sufficient.
Please see the online Help System for detailed help in entering topographic information.

resources_setup_consrv_plan
Conservation Planning – Rangeland
resources_setup_consrv_plan_rngl
Conservation Planning and Topography are inter-related.
Information should be entered for Soil Erodibility, Overland Flow and Wind Erosion.
The Slope Length on the Topography tab impacts the Conservation Planning information.
If you do not have data for this information, the defaults are sufficient.
Please see the online Help System for detailed help in entering topographic information.
Weed Population
Select the dominant annual weed species that are present on the MU.
Then enter the Weed Pressure Rating for each weed species selected. (NOTE: Change the weed pressure ratings on a different scenario to see what effect weeds have on yield.)
There are images of the different weed pressures in the Help System to help in selecting the correct descriptive term.
RESOURCES_SETUP_WEEDPOP
Forage
The Forage tab is available only if the MU is a rangeland MU.
Enter the vegetation data for Total Initial Biomass and the Forage Use Factor. You can accept the default values or if you have values that are more accurate for your operation, enter those in place of the default values.
The Maximum Forage can be adjusted by moving the slider bars for Grassland Type and Grassland Condition. Grassland Type refers to short, mixed and tall grasslands. The grassland condition is an assessment of the grassland by the user.
Enter the percentage of forage in each species group.

resources_setup_forage_NEW
Operations
The Operations for each Management Unit must be defined for a simulation to run. This is done in the Farm/Ranch Window at the Management Unit level.
For each Management Unit, do the following for each operation as appropriate as described on the following pages:
Choose the Management Operation Option
Choose the Crop/Land Use and the Operation Type (Event)
Set the Date for the operation
Click in the check box if it is a Custom Operation
Enter or select Equipment, Properties and Materials/Custom information
The Total Cost will be displayed for the event and icons will appear on the timeline below. If the cost seems to be too high or too low, go back to Equipment Costs, Properties or Materials/Custom to find what item(s) needs adjusting.
MANAGEMENT_OPERATION_F
Management Operation Options

There are two options or methods of entering management operations. They include Rotation and Events Over Time.

Rotation – this is the easier, faster way of entering operations. Once you set up the operations for each crop/land use in the rotation then these operations are repeated for every time the rotation is repeated.
Events Over Time – with this option each operation for each event for every year must be entered. This is helpful when a rotation is not being repeated and every year is potentially different. You cannot mix Rotation and Events Over Time on the Farm/Ranch. In any one scenario you cannot have some MUs with operations entered as a rotation and some MUs with operations entered as Events Over Time.
On Range MUs only the Rotation Management operation option is available. Events are entered for one year on range MUs and then repeated for the number of years in the rotation.
Crop/Land Use
Select either cropland or rangeland.
What is available in the dropdown list depends on how the management unit was defined. If it is a cropping MU, the crops currently included and fallow will be listed. If it is a rangeland MU then range is the only option available.
Operation Type
If the MU is a cropping MU and a crop is chosen the following events are available:
Tillage
Planting
Commercial Fertilizer
Manure
Weed Control - BOTH
Weed Control - POST
Weed Control - SOIL
Irrigation – fixed date
Irrigation Interval
Harvest
If the land type is Fallow, Start and Stop replace Planting and Harvesting events.
If the land type is Range, then the only events available are Graze Start and Graze End.
Operation Date
Every operation must have a specific date.
For a Rotation management option, enter the year as one, two, three etc. This refers to the year within the rotation.
For Events Over Time and for Rangeland MUs the actual calendar date for year must be entered for example, 1990.
If a crop or land use type spans the end of the calendar year, simply enter those operations that occur in the first year as year 1 (or whatever year the rotation is in when this crop or land use type is selected) and the operations in the second calendar year as year 2 or the appropriate following year. For a winter wheat-fallow rotation the wheat planting date (usually September or October) is in year 1, but harvest is in year 2.
If actual calendar years are used enter the calendar year for each operation in the same manner.
date_spec_rotation date_spec_events_over_time
Custom Operations
Click in the check box to designate a Custom Operation.
A custom operation does not require equipment. That will be provided by the person performing the custom operation. It will be accounted for in the economics for GPFARM by the fee charged by the custom operator associated with the custom operation.
NOTE: If the custom operation is a tillage event you must still choose tillage equipment. GPFARM needs that information for other internal calculations.
Properties do not change between custom operations and other operations.
You will need to enter materials information for a custom operation. This is not optional as it is for other operations. (See Materials for Custom Operation)
Operation Equipment
Choose the equipment needed for the operation event from the list that appears. This is the list that you created when you selected equipment for the Farm/Ranch.
If you find that a piece of equipment is not included press the Equipment Setup button to return to the screen where you can add equipment or even modify or create new equipment.
If the operation is a custom tillage operation be sure to select equipment.
EQUIPMENT_USED_OPERATION
Edit Operations
You can edit operations you have entered by clicking the right mouse button to access the edit menu.
Copy Operation - copies the operation in the row where you right-clicked.
Paste Operation - pastes the copied operation. Position the cursor on the row where you want to paste the operation. You will have to enter the date.
Cut Operation - deletes an operation. It will NOT be available to paste in again.
Insert Operation - inserts a blank row in the operations spreadsheet. Enter the information for an added operation here.
Sort Operation - sorts the operations by date.
Clear Table - clears the table. You will have to re-enter operations.
right_click_operations
Change Start Crop
To change the beginning crop in the rotation, click the right mouse button on the Operations screen and choose Change Start Crop.
This is only available if the Management Operation Option is Rotation.
Choose the new Start Crop from the list in the dialog box.
CHANGE_START_CROP right_click_operations
Properties for Events
Properties need to be provided for each event.
There are some exceptions in that Tillage events, Grazing Start and Grazing End, Fallow Start and Fallow Stop have no properties.
The icon under Properties will show red until the event has had its properties defined. The icon will then show green.
Properties for Tillage Events
No information is required for tillage event properties.
The icon under the Properties column will be green for a tillage event signifying no information is required.
Properties for Planting Events
Enter the following information:
Row spacing in inches
Total Seeding Rate by choosing Seeds/Acre or Lbs/Acre of seeds and entering the amount of Seeds/Acre or Lbs/Acre of seeds.
Seed Size – only available if Seeds/Acre was chosen.
In-Row Plant Spacing is not currently editable.

Enter the economic information at the bottom of the screen.

If the land use is Fallow, Planting will be replaced by Start and no information is required.
crop_planting_information
Properties for Nutrient Applications Events
Nutrients may be applied as:
Commercial Fertilizers
Blend of Fertilizers
Manure
Each type requires different information to be entered.
Properties for Commercial Fertilizer Events
Enter the type of fertilizer and the method by which it is applied.
Next enter the amount of fertilizer applied in total pounds per acre. The table to the left will calculate the pounds and percent of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium applied based on the fertilizer type and amount applied.
Enter the economic information at the bottom of the screen.
To choose a Blend Commercial fertilizer select Blend under the Type of fertilizer and enter the percentage of each component in the blend in the Blend/Other screen that appears.
COMMERCIAL_FERTILIZER
Properties for Manure Application Events
Select the source of the manure and enter the amount applied in tons/acre.
Select the method of application and enter the percentage of water in the manure.
The percentage of components will be entered for you in the table. You can type in new percentages if you want to, however the column must total 100%.
Enter the economic information at the bottom of the screen.
NUTRIENT_MANURE
Properties for Weed Control Events
Choose the herbicide treatment you want to apply, a surfactant if any and check if the herbicide will be applied in bands.
You can view treatment notes about the selected treatment. You can also edit the treatment by changing the efficacies of the treatment components.
You can add a new tank mix.
You can view the properties of each component of the selected treatment. These are the parameters for the components and can be edited. Do not change these parameters unless you are sure of the new values.
Enter economic information for the treatment.
weed_management
Properties for Irrigation Events
Irrigation can be entered in two ways: as a Fixed date when an amount of water will be applied on a specific date or as an Interval when an amount of water will be applied every number of days as determined by the interval you set.
Enter the amount of water to be applied, the amount of nitrogen in the water, and the duration of irrigation. If this is an Interval irrigation event, then enter the start and stop date and the number of days between irrigation events.
Be careful how many interval irrigation events you schedule. There is room for only 98 total events in the spreadsheet and scheduling too many interval irrigations can overrun the spreadsheet.
irrigation_fixed_date irrigation_interval
Properties for Harvest Events
Enter the water content of the harvested yield.
Enter the Stover Added as New Residue at Harvest. This is the portion left in the field.
Enter the Standing Residue at Harvest and the Flat Residue at Harvest. These two comprise the Stover Added as New Residue at Harvest and must equal 100%.
If the land use is Fallow, Harvest will be replaced by End and no information is required.
HARVEST_INFORMATION
Properties for Graze Start and End Events
No Properties are required for Graze Start or Graze End. The icon will load in green to indicate nothing needs to be entered for this event in properties.
These events are available only if the MU is a rangeland MU.
Materials/Custom
If it is not a custom operation you have the option of entering additional information under materials/custom, but it is not required.
Enter economic information about materials that were used and not entered on any of the property screens. This could be for materials that don’t belong in the previous property screens.
Enter cost information about non-machine labor.
materials
Materials for Custom Operation
When you designate an operation or event as Custom you will need to enter Materials information. GPFARM will not let you out of this screen until you enter the information.
Click on the icon under Materials/Custom and enter a description of the materials used in the custom operation. Enter the units the material is priced in and the amount of units used in the operation.
custom_rates_2
Setup Status - Farm
At any time during the setup of your operation, you can click on the Setup Status icon to see a report of what you have completed for each MU. You can also access this from the Build menu.
You can print this report to have along side you as you work through the setup of your operation. It is also a good idea to print this if you have to leave before you finish setting up your operation. Then when you return, the print out of the Setup Status will help you know what else needs to be completed.
SETUP_STATUS_1 setup_status_crop
Setup Status - Ranch
You can also access the Setup Status for the Ranch from the Setup Status icon or from the Build menu.
You can print this report to have along side you as you work through the setup of your operation. It is also a good idea to print this if you have to leave before you finish setting up your operation. Then when you return, the print out of the Setup Status will help you know what else needs to be completed.
SETUP_STATUS_RANCH_1 SETUP_STATUS_RANCH_3
Load a Project
To run an existing project, first close any currently open projects (see section xx, page xx).
Next, click on the Load icon from the main screen.
On the next screen select a Project and click the Load button or just double-click the mouse.
Now select from the existing scenarios and click Open.
The scenario will display the farm/ranch layout. You can now edit the scenario (climate, economics, operations, resources, etc.), run the scenario as is, or view results from the last time this scenario was run.

load 1 load4 load5
Run an Existing Project
To run an existing project or a modified existing project, click on the Run icon to begin the simulation (this can also be accomplished by clicking the Evaluate menu tab and choosing Run Simulation Model)
A series of screens will now appear; make the desired selection for each screen to begin the run

open project
Choose the Scenarios
The Simulation Setup window allows you to choose the scenario(s) you wish to run.
If all of the finished scenarios are not shown, select Reset Scenarios to bring in the rest.
Highlight the desired scenario(s) on the left of the screen and click Add.
Once you have selected the desired scenario(s), click the Evaluate Scenario(s) button to move to the next screen.

load b
Simulation Time Definition
The screen Simulation Time Definition will indicate the beginning and ending years and months for the selected climate (red arrow) and the Simulation Date Selection (blue arrow).
You can change the length of time for simulation to run by changing the Simulation Date Selection , but only if you stay within the time frame shown in Climate Database Range.

simulaton time defin run
Status of the Scenarios
The final screen before the simulation begins is the Status of Scenario(s). This screen will tell you if all of the information necessary to run the simulation has been completed.
If the screen indicates a problem, click NO, and return to that part of the setup to make corrections or additions.
Click on YES if all of the items are ok as is.
status of scen run
Simulation Options
The next screen allows you to choose between running the science simulation alone, just the economics alone, or both simulation and economics together.
Running only the Science Model will produce only environmental results.
Running only the Economics Model will produce only economic results.
Choose one of the three options and click OK.
choose econ or simul
Simulation Progress
While the simulation runs, GPFARM keeps you informed of its progress.

If for some reason GPFARM does not complete the run, write down the information on the screen and include it in your correspondence with the GPFARM technical support team
pic5 pic6 p
View the Results
At the end of the simulation a screen will appear asking if you want to Launch Output Graphics.

Click YES if you wish to view the results as graphs.
launch output grphcs
GPFARM Outputs
There are several ways to view output from the GPFARM model run:
You can view graphical displays of output for the Whole farm, for Crop and for Rangeland.

You can compare different scenarios in Scenario Comparisons.

You can use the decision tool Multiple Criteria Analysis, to compare indices in the results.

Spatial Analysis is a way to view the results in a map fashion. This is only practical if there are at least two MUs in the scenario.

Economic Analyses can be viewed in several different reports and in breakeven analyses for crop and rangeland.
Graphical Display
This is the only way output can be viewed for scenarios containing mixed MU’s, i.e. both crop and rangeland MUs.
Select the:
Spatial Units
Output Type
Scenarios
Output Variable Type – Default variables, Pesticides or Weed variables
Crop or Cropping System, Pesticides or Weeds list - may not be available depending upon other selections
Output Variable to be graphed
Items can be graphed for the Whole Farm, Cropping MUs or Rangeland MUs. The above items must be chosen as appropriate to graphically display output for the Whole Farm, Cropping or Rangeland MUs.
visualization
Scenario Comparisons
Scenario Comparison is a decision tool that compares all indices with equal preference.
Two or more scenarios can be compared for economic indices and environmental indices.
This is not appropriate for scenarios containing rangeland mu’s.
Choose the scenarios, environmental indices and the economic indices to be compared. Only one economic factor may be chosen whereas one or all environmental indices can be chosen.
gpfarm_indices
Multiple Criteria Analysis
This is a decision tool that allows you to compare indices, but you can give one index a higher preference over another index. In Scenario Comparisons, all indices have equal weight.
For example, if you value or prefer one index above another you can give it a greater weight or preference. You set the preferences in the Preference Structure screen.
mcdm_graph mcdm_preference_structure
Spatial Analysis
This is another way to view the output in a pictorial way. The results are displayed by color on the map of the farm or ranch.
This is most appropriate for scenarios with two or more MUs which have repeating crop treatments.
Do not use this output form for rangeland MUs or scenarios with mixed MUs, i.e. crop and rangeland.
Use the Spatial Setup option to open the Variable Selection screen to choose the variables to be displayed spatially.
Click on Spatial Analysis again to close the display.
SPATIAL_ANALYSIS_DISPLAY VARIABLE_SELECTION_WHEAT
Economic Analysis Overview
There are several ways to view the economic analyses that GPFARM provides:
Many reports are available; choose Crop Reports or Rangeland Reports.
You can also see a Breakeven Analysis for either crop or range. It is not possible at this time to view Breakeven Analysis for both Crop and Rangeland MU’s. That is, GPFARM cannot provide integrated economic output for the entire enterprise when both cropland and rangeland are part of the scenario.
Economic Analysis – Crop Reports
Crop Reports include:
Detailed Budget report – includes the costs for each item used in each operation.
Budget by Operation report – includes the gross receipts for the product and the direct costs for each item in the operation.
Budget by Inputs – includes the gross receipts for the product and the direct costs for materials and equipment used in the operation.
Materials report – includes the costs of each material used in the operations of the enterprise.
Cash Needs report – includes the cash needed for machinery costs, materials and labor each month to produce the crop on one MU.
Whole Farm Summary report – includes the Operating and Total Costs and Returns and the Total Breakeven Price and Yields.
detailed_econ_reports_crop
Economic Analysis –Range Reports
Range Reports include:
Range Enterprise Budgeting report – includes the Total Revenues by animal class and the Total Costs for several categories.
This is provided for one year and you choose the year to view.
econ_report_range_year econ_report_range_enterprise_budgeting
Economic Analysis – Crop Breakeven Reports
A Crop Breakeven Analysis shows the price you must receive for a given yield in order to breakeven and what yield you will need to breakeven. This is shown for both Operating Costs and Total Costs.
The Breakeven Operating Price is the price required to exactly cover the Operating Costs.
The Breakeven Total Price is the price required to exactly cover the Total Costs.
The Breakeven Operating Yield is the minimum yield required to exactly cover the Operating Costs.
The Breakeven Total Price is the minimum yield required to exactly cover the Total Costs.

crop_breakeven
Economic Analysis – Range Breakeven Reports
A Range Breakeven Analysis shows price you must receive for a given weaning weight of animal in order to breakeven. It will also show the weaning weight the animal needs to have for you to breakeven.
The Breakeven price is the price needed to exactly cover the Operating Costs of producing the animal.
The Breakeven Weaning Weight is the weaning weight required to exactly cover the operating costs incurred in producing the animal.
range_breakeven
Worksheets
Economic Default Values Worksheets
Economic Default Values
Irrigation
Equipment
Resources
Operations
Livestock/Range
Extras
Worksheets
Irrigation Worksheets
Worksheets
Equipment Worksheets
Worksheets
Resources Worksheets
Worksheets
Operations/Rotations Worksheets
Worksheets
Operations/Rotations Worksheets
Worksheets
Operations/Rotations Worksheets
Worksheets
Livestock/Range Worksheets
Worksheets
Livestock/Range Worksheets
Worksheets
Livestock/Range Worksheets
Worksheets
Livestock/Range Worksheets
Worksheets
Extra Worksheets
Worksheets
Extra Worksheets
Worksheets
Extra Worksheets
Worksheets
Extra Worksheets
Worksheets
Extra Worksheets
Default Values - Irrigation and Machinery
Irrigation Energy Rates
Customer charge $ 7.00/month
Meter charge $ 6.20/meter/month
Demand charge $ 1.50/hp per connected load
Demand charge $ 1.85/max. KW per summer month
Demand charge $ 1.70/summer month per peak KW
Demand charge $ 1.25/max. KW per winter month
Demand charge $ 0.10/average per KW
Average energy charge $ 0.05/ KWH
State surcharge $ 0.0002/KWH
Machinery
Sales tax rate 5%
Insurance rate 3%
Storage costs $ 0.33/foot
Gasoline $ 1.20/gal
Diesel fuel $ 0.90/gal
LP gas $ 1.00/gal
Natural gas $ 0.40/CCF
Default Values - Crops
Crops Price Yield
Corn $ 2.75/bu 80 bu
Corn (irrigated) $ 2.75/bu 80 bu
Winter wheat $ 3.60/bu 30 bu
Winter wheat (irrigated) $ 3.60/bu 30 bu
Proso millet $ 4.25/bu 100 bu
Proso millet (irrigated) $ 4.25/bu 100 bu
Foxtail millet $ 4.50/ton 3 ton
Foxtail millet (irrigated) $ 4.50/ton 3 ton
Sunflower oil $ 6.50/CWT 3 CWT
Sunflower oil (irrigated) $ 6.50/CWT 3 CWT
Sunflower seed $ 6.50/CWT 3 CWT
Sunflower seed (irrigated) $ 6.50/CWT 3 CWT
Sorghum grain $ 1.80/bu 50 bu
Sorghum grain (irrigated) $ 1.80/bu 90 bu
Default Values – Labor and Investment Interest
Labor Cost
Machine labor $ 7.00/hr
Irrigation labor $ 7.00/hr
Other labor $ 7.00/hr
Investment Interest Rate
Short-term interest rate

1 year operating loan 10.00%

Intermediate-term interest rate

up to 10 years, equipment loan 10.00%

Long-term interest rate

land, building and investments 10.00%

Default Values – Livestock and Forage

Bull information Units
Time with cows 30 days
Purchase price $ 400.00
Selling price $ 150.00
Useful life 7 years
Bull weight 1000 pounds
Weaning weight

200 day Adjusted

Female 419 Lbs 383 Lbs
Male 430 Lbs 394 Lbs
Initial Herd Class Distribution

Open Bred Yearling Heifer Steer

Bulls Cows Cows Calves Calves Calves

Number of head 5 0 75 7 0 0
Yearling heifer replacement 0%

Feed Sources AUM

Forage – Grazing rental rate $ 15.00/ Animal Unit Month (AUM)

Default Values – Energy and Grain/Concentrates Supplements
Supplement Dry Crude Initial Restock
Supplement Type matter TDN% Protein Price Price
Energy supplement
Apple Pomace 22.0% 69 5.40% $00.030 $00.059
Bakery waste 92.0% 89 9.00% $00.030 $00.059
Beet sugar, pulp dehydrated 91.0% 74 9.80% $00.030 $00.059
Beet pulp + Steffens filt 91.0% 66 10.00% $00.030 $00.059
Citrus, pomace without fines, dehy. 91.1% 82 6.70% $00.030 $00.059
Corn, Dry ear, 45 lbs/bu 86.0% 77 9.00% $00.030 $00.059
Corn, Dry ear, 56 lbs/bu 87.0% 82 9.00% $00.030 $00.059
Corn, HM ear, 56 lbs/bu 72.0% 85 9.00% $00.030 $00.059
Corn, hominy 90.0% 91 11.50% $00.030 $00.060
Fats, animal hydrolyzed 99.2% 177 0.00% $00.030 $00.059
Fats, oil vegetable 99.8% 177 0.00% $00.030 $00.059
Rice, bran with germ 90.5% 70 14.40% $00.029 $00.058
Sorghum, steam flaked 70.0% 88 12.00% $00.030 $00.059
Tallow 99.0% 177 0.00% $00.030 $00.059
Tapioca 89.0% 84 3.10% $00.030 $00.059
Wheat, bran 89.0% 70 17.40% $00.031 $00.061
Wheat, flour by product 89.3% 69 18.70% $00.030 $00.059
Wheat, middlings 89.0% 83 18.40% $00.028 $00.056
Whey acid 89.0% 83 18.40% $00.028 $00.056
Whey delact 93.0% 71 17.90% $00.030 $00.059

Default Values – Energy and Grain/Concentrates Supplements cont’d

Supplement Dry Crude Initial Restock
Supplement Type matter TDN% Protein Price Price
Grain/Concentrates
Barley, grain 88.1% 88 13.20% $00.045 $00.090
Barley, grain light 88.0% 77 14.00% $00.045 $00.090
Canola, grain 92.2% 70 30.70% $00.120 $00.240
Corn, Dent yellow grain 90.0% 90 9.80% $00.048 $00.097
Corn, Dry grain, 45 lbs 88.0% 88 9.80% $00.048 $00.097
Corn, Dry grain, 56 lbs 88.0% 88 9.80% $00.048 $00.097
Corn, Ground grain 88.0% 88 9.80% $00.048 $00.097
Corn, Grain flaked 86.0% 93 9.80% $00.048 $00.097
Corn, HM grain 45lbs/ 72.0% 90 9.80% $00.048 $00.097
Corn, HM grain 56lbs/ 72.0% 93 9.80% $00.048 $00.097
Oats, grain 38 lbs/bu 89.2% 77 13.60% $00.063 $00.127
Rice, grain ground 89.0% 79 8.90% $00.012 $00.024
Rice, grain polished 89.0% 89 8.60% $00.012 $00.024
Rye, grain 88.0% 84 13.80% $00.070 $00.140
Wheat, grain 90.2% 88 14.20% $00.075 $00.150
Wheat, grain hard red 88.0% 84 14.20% $00.075 $00.150
Wheat, grain soft white 90.0% 85 11.30% $00.065 $00.130
Oats, grain 32 lbs/bu 91.0% 73 13.60% $00.063 $00.127
Sorghum, dry grain 89.0% 76 11.60% $00.043 $00.087
Sorghum, grain 90.0% 82 12.60% $00.043 $00.087

Default Values – Grass Hay and Legume Hay Supplements

Supplement Dry Crude Initial Restock
Supplement Type matter TDN% Protein Price Price
Grass hay
Bahiagrass, hay 90.0% 51 8.20% $00.046 $00.093
Bermudagrass, coastal 93.0% 49 7.80% $00.046 $00.093
Brome, hay pre-bloom 88.0% 60 16.00% $00.034 $00.068
Brome, smooth hay mid-bloom 87.6% 56 14.40% $00.034 $00.068
Brome, hay late-bloom 91.0% 55 10.00% $00.034 $00.068
Brome, smooth hay, mature 92.6% 53 6.00% $00.034 $00.068
Canary Grass, Reed 89.3% 55 10.20% $00.046 $00.093
Fescue, Alta hay 89.0% 55 10.20% $00.046 $00.093
Fescue, K31 hay 91.0% 58 12.90% $00.046 $00.093
Fescue, Kentucky 31 90.0% 44 10.80% $00.046 $00.093
Fescue, Meadow hay 88.0% 56 9.10% $00.046 $00.093
Oats, hay sun-cured 90.7% 53 9.50% $00.039 $00.078
Orchard Grass, hay early bloom 89.1% 65 12.80% $00.046 $00.093
Orchard Grass, hay late bloom 90.6% 54 8.40% $00.046 $00.093
Ryegrass, hay 88.0% 64 8.60% $00.046 $00.093
Sorghum, Sudan hay 91.0% 56.1 11.30% $00.046 $00.093
Timothy, hay late-veg 89.0% 62 14.00% $00.046 $00.093
Timothy, hay sun-cured early bloom 89.1% 59 10.80% $00.046 $00.093
Timothy, hay mid-bloom 89.0% 57 9.70% $00.046 $00.093
Timothy, hay sun-cured full bloom 89.4% 56 8.10% $00.046 $00.093
Timothy, hay seed stage 89.0% 47 6.00% $00.046 $00.093
Wheat, hay sun-cured 88.7% 58 8.70% $00.046 $00.093
Wheatgrass, Crested hay 92.0% 53 9.00% $00.046 $00.093

Default Values – Grass Hay and Legume Hay Supplements cont’d
Supplement Dry Crude Initial Restock
Supplement Type matter TDN% Protein Price Price
Legume hay
Alfalfa 90.6% 60 18.60% $00.059 $00.117
Alfalfa, sun cured 90.5% 60 19.90% $00.059 $00.117
Alfalfa, sun cured 90.9% 55 17.00% $00.059 $00.117
Alfalfa, sun cured 91.0% 58 18.70% $00.059 $00.117
Alfalfa, mature 91.0% 50 14.00% $00.059 $00.117
Alfalfa, weathered 89.0% 48 10.00% $00.059 $00.117
Clover, Ladino, fresh 89.1% 60 22.40% $00.059 $00.117
Clover, Red, hay 88.4% 55 15.00% $00.059 $00.117
Trefoil, Birdsfoot 90.6% 59 15.90% $00.059 $00.117
Vetch, hay 89.0% 57 20.80% $00.059 $00.117
Default Values – Other Roughages Supplements

Supplement Dry Crude Initial Restock
Supplement Type matter TDN% Protein Price Price
Other roughages
Alfalfa cubes 91.0% 61 17.00% $00.036 $00.071
Alfalfa meal 91.7% 62 18.90% $00.062 $00.124
Alfalfa meal dehydrated 15% protein 90.4% 59 17.30% $00.066 $00.132
Alfalfa meal dehydrated 17% protein 91.8% 61 18.90% $00.064 $00.128
Alfalfa pellets, sun-cured 91.0% 61.5 17.00% $00.067 $00.133
Alfalfa pellets, dehydrated 91.0% 66.6 18.90% $00.064 $00.129
Alfalfa silage, early-bloom 44.1% 63 19.50% $00.036 $00.071
Alfalfa silage, mid-bloom 38.0% 58 17.00% $00.036 $00.071
Alfalfa silage, full-bloom 40.0% 55 16.00% $00.036 $00.071
Barley silage 37.1% 60 11.90% $00.036 $00.071
Barley straw 91.2% 40 4.40% $00.023 $00.045
Corn, Dent Yellow silage 34.6% 72 8.65% $00.036 $00.071
Corn silage, 45% GR+NPN 33.0% 79 13.00% $00.036 $00.071
Corn silage, 45% GR+NPN+Ca 33.0% 75 13.00% $00.036 $00.071
Corn silage, 50% grain 35.0% 75 8.00% $00.036 $00.071
CS 50% + NPN + Ca 35.0% 82 13.00% $00.036 $00.071

Default Values – Other Roughages Supplements cont’d
Supplement Dry Crude Initial Restock
Supplement Type matter TDN% Protein Price Price
Other roughages
Corn silage, immature 25.0% 65 9.00% $00.036 $00.071
Corn silage, stalkage 30.0% 55 6.30% $00.036 $00.071
Corn stalks, grazing 50.0% 66 6.50% $00.036 $00.071
Cotton, hulls 90.4% 42 4.20% $00.036 $00.071
Grape Pomace 90.0% 33 0.00% $00.036 $00.071
Meadow Hay 90.0% 60 13.40% $00.046 $00.093
Oats, hulls 92.4% 35 4.10% $00.007 $00.015
Oats, silage 36.4% 59 12.70% $00.036 $00.071
Oats, straw 92.2% 50 4.40% $00.036 $00.071
Prairie, hay 91.0% 48 5.30% $00.046 $00.093
Prairie plants, Midwest, hay 91.0% 51 6.40% $00.046 $00.093
Rice, hulls 91.9% 12 3.10% $00.004 $00.009
Sorghum, silage 30.0% 60 9.39% $00.036 $00.071
Sorghum, Sudan silage 28.0% 55 10.80% $00.036 $00.071
Soybeans, seed coats 90.3% 77 12.20% $00.035 $00.070
Wheat, silage 34.2% 57 12.50% $00.036 $00.071
Wheat, straw 91.3% 41 3.50% $00.016 $00.032
Default Values –Protein Supplements

Supplement Dry Crude Initial Restock
Supplement Type matter TDN% Protein Price Price
Protein supplement
Barley, malt sprouts with hulls 93.0% 71 28.10% $00.076 $00.152
Blood meal 90.5% 66 93.80% $00.076 $00.152
Brewers grain 21% dry 21.0% 70 26.00% $00.076 $00.152
Brewers, grain dehydrated 90.2% 66 29.20% $00.076 $00.152
Canola, meal sun cured 82.0% 69 40.90% $00.076 $00.152
Coconut meal 92.0% 64 21.50% $00.076 $00.152
Corn, Dent yellow, distillers grains 90.3% 90 30.40% $00.076 $00.152
Corn, Dent yellow, gluten feed 90.0% 80 23.80% $00.034 $00.067
Corn, gluten meal 91.0% 84 46.80% $00.076 $00.152
Corn, Dent yellow, gluten meal 88.2% 89 66.30% $00.132 $00.265
Cotton, seed 89.4% 90 24.40% $00.076 $00.152
Cottonseed, black whole 92.0% 95 23.00% $00.056 $00.113
Cottonseed, high lint 92.0% 90 24.40% $00.076 $00.152
Cottonseed, meal-mechanical 92.0% 78 44.00% $00.076 $00.152
Cottonseed, meal-solv 41 %CP 90.2% 75 46.10% $00.077 $00.154
Cottonseed, meal-solv 43% CP 92.0% 75 48.90% $00.076 $00.152
Distillers grain, + solubles 25.0% 88 29.50% $00.076 $00.152
Distillers grain dehydrated 91.0% 88 30.40% $00.052 $00.105
Distillers grain wet 25.0% 90 26.00% $00.076 $00.152

Default Values – Protein Supplements cont’d

Supplement Dry Crude Initial Restock
Supplement Type matter TDN% Protein Price Price
Protein supplement
Feathermeal, poultry 93.3% 68 85.80% $00.124 $00.248
Fish, anchovy meal-mechanical 92.0% 79 71.20% $00.076 $00.152
Fish, Menhaden meal-mechanical 91.7% 73 67.90% $00.076 $00.152
Lupins 90.0% 78 34.20% $00.076 $00.152
Meat, meal rendered 93.8% 71 58.20% $00.076 $00.152
Peanut, seeds without coats 92.4% 77 52.90% $00.076 $00.152
Soybean, meal 90.9% 84 51.80% $00.076 $00.152
Soybean, seeds meal 44%CP 89.1% 84 49.90% $00.077 $00.153
Soybean, seed whole 86.4% 94 40.30% $00.090 $00.179
Soybean, whole roasted 90.0% 94 42.80% $00.090 $00.179
Soybean, seeds w/o hulls 89.9% 87 54.00% $00.076 $00.152
Soybean, meal 49% 90.0% 87 54.00% $00.082 $00.164
Sunflower, Common seeds w/o hulls 92.5% 65 26.00% $00.055 $00.110
Urea 99.0% 0 291.00% $00.076 $00.152

Default Values – Herd Class Prices and Financial/Capital

Herd Class Prices Open Bred Heifer Steer
Type Bull cows cows calves calves
Price/head $44.50 $36.09 $36.09 $74.21 $74.21
Date sold N/A 09/16 N/A 09/16 N/A

Financial/Capital
Interest on operating capital 10.00% per year

Right Click Menu

You can click the right mouse button and a short-cut menu will appear with several choices from the menu bars. This is a fast way to access the most often used commands.

View Farm/Ranch – this is a hierarchical view of the Farm/Ranch, Fields and MUs.
Management Units – this further opens to the menu choices of Adding, Modifying and Deleting an MU.
Management Resources – this enables you to access the Resources for a chosen MU.
Management Operations – this enables you to access the Operations for a chosen MU.
Zoom Normal – this is the normal, desktop view of the Farm/Ranch layout.
Zoom Extent – this view shows the entire Farm/Ranch layout and is useful if the layout is large and cannot be seen entirely when in normal view.
Zoom Spatial Level – this view shows the entire Farm/Ranch and is useful when using Spatial Analysis. This display is larger than Zoom Extent but still shows the entire Farm/Ranch layout.
Save Screen as Bitmap – allows you to save the current screen image as a bitmap (.bmp) file.
Graphical Display – this takes you to the graphical display of the last run of the current scenario.
Spatial Analysis – this displays the last run results in a pictorial way on the Farm/Ranch layout.
Spatial Setup – use this to select different options for Spatial Analysis.
RIGHT_CLICK_DESKTOP
Create Your Own
Within GPFARM you can create your own historical climate, soils database and define your own machinery. Detailed instructions are provided in the Help System in the following topics:
“How to Use Your Own Historical Climate Data”
“User-Defined Soils”
“New Equipment”
To create your own climate file you will need to populate two tables CLIMLONG which contains your climate data and the CLIMSTN table (climate station). You will then need to create .ash file and instruct GPFARM to write these two tables to the climate database (CLIMDB).
To create your own soils file you will need to supply data describing the soil and the soil parameters. These will be used to populate tables in the database that GPFARM will use to run the simulation.
To create your own or new machinery you will need to enter economic information as well as data concerning the life of the equipment, how it is powered, soil disturbance, coverage, storage space required and labor factors.
Menus Overview
On the first window in GPFARM you will find four menus:
Farm/Ranch – differs slightly from Farm/Ranch on the next window.
Project Manager – no sub-menu. Manager icon.
Information System – no sub-menu. Info Sys icon.
Help – same as Help on the next window. Help icon.
On the window where you will do all the setup of your operation you will find seven menus:
Farm/Ranch
Build
Scenario
Evaluate
Information System – no sub-menu. Info Sys icon.
Window
Help – Help icon.
menu_main_window menu_project_window
Farm/Ranch Menu – First Window
The Farm/Ranch menu occurs on both windows of GPFARM and they differ slightly .
The first window Farm/Ranch menu includes:
New – creates a new project. This is the same as the New icon.
Load – loads an existing project. This equals the Load icon.
Save, Save As, Close are grayed and unavailable at this level.
Delete – deletes the entire project including all scenarios. This is the same a s the Delete icon.
Options – choose to turn off the weeds module or select a different browser for viewing the Information System. These options are also available under the Window menu.
Exit GPFARM – closes GPFARM and equals the Exit icon.
menu_farm_ranch_window
Farm/Ranch Menu – Second Window
The Farm/Ranch menu on the second GPFARM window is similar to the previous Farm/Ranch menu. It includes:
New, Load, Print, Exit GPFARM are grayed and unavailable at this level.
Save – saves the Farm/Ranch project with the same name.
Save As – saves the Farm/Ranch project with a new name.
Close - closes the farm/ranch project. You can choose whether to save it as the current scenario or give the scenario a new name.
Save Screen as Bitmap – saves the current screen image in bitmap form (.bmp).
menu_farm_ranch_window_2
Build Menu - Overview
The Build Menu contains all the items required to set up before running GPFARM. Items included are:
Farm/Ranch Layout – view the layout of the farm/ranch or Add, Modify, or Delete an MU. Layout Icon
Climate – select climate data for the whole farm/ranch. Climate icon.
Economics – access the default values or set up investments for the farm/ranch. Econ icon.
Equipment - select the equipment for the farm/ranch operation. Equip icon.
Management – setup all the resources and operations for the farm/ranch. Mgmt icon.
Irrigation System – setup the irrigation system(s) for the farm/ranch. Irrigation icon.
Livestock/Range – define the livestock and forage operation. Range icon.
Setup Status – view the progress of the setup of the farm/ranch. This will show what has been defined and what remains to be setup. Status icon.
menu_build_window
Build Menu - Layout
The first selection in the Build Menu is Farm/Ranch Layout. This is the same as the Layout icon. There are two choices available and include:
View Farm/Ranch – this is a hierarchical view of the farm/ranch structure. It shows the fields and associated MUs.
Management Unit – this has a sub-menu and contains three choices:
Add – create a new management unit.
Modify – edit an existing management unit.
Delete – remove an existing management unit.
menu_build_mu_window
Build Menu - Economics
The Build menu contains an Economics item which is the same as the Econ icon. The economics choice has a sub-menu with two additional choices. They are:
Default Values – use this to view the default values GPFARM provides. You can edit these values if you have better data for your operation.
Investments – setup the investments for the farm/ranch. These include items such as a new building or improvements made.
menu_build_economics_window
Build Menu - Management
The Build menu contains a Management item and is the same as the Mgmt icon. The management choice has a sub-menu with two additional choices. They are:
Resources – setup all the resources for each MU. This may include Soils information, Residue Cover, Topography, Conservation Planning, Weeds or Forage.
Operations – setup all the operations for each MU. This includes selecting the Date, Equipment, Properties, Materials for each Operation performed on each Crop/Land Use in the MU.
menu_build_management_window
Scenario Menu
The scenario menu has two choices and they are:
View Inputs – this allows you to see the inputs you have entered/accepted for the scenario you are creating or have created. This is presented in the form of reports. This is the same as the Inputs icon.
Save – this allows you to save the scenario as the current scenario or to save it as a new scenario.
menu_scenario_window
Evaluate Menu - Overview
There are three choices in the Evaluate menu. They are:
Run Simulation Model – choose this to run GPFARM with all the information you have entered. Run icon.
Simulation Model Results – choose the way you want to view the results of the GPFARM run. Results icon.
Economic Analysis – choose the economic analysis you want to view. Econ Analysis icon.
menu_evaluate_window
Evaluate Menu - Results
The Evaluate menu has a Simulation Model Results choice and is the same as the Results icon. Simulation Model Results has a sub-menu with five items. They are:
Graphical Display – choose this to see the results displayed in a graph.
Scenario Comparison – this compares the economic and environmental indices of two or more scenarios. You can see which scenario provides the best outcome with the given information.
Multiple Criteria Analysis – this shows economic and environmental indices. You can choose to give one index a higher preference and the graph will compare the indices with the selected index having more weight or importance.
Spatial Analysis – this displays a selected result in a pictorial way in the farm/ranch layout.
Spatial Setup – this is used to select the items that will be displayed in the Spatial Analysis and is available only when Spatial Analysis is checked.
menu_evaluate_results_window
Evaluate Menu – Economic Analysis
Economic Analysis is the third choice on the Evaluate menu and is the same as the Econ Analysis icon. It has a sub-menu with four choices. They are:
Crop Reports – view economic results for crops in several different reports.
Crop Breakeven – shows the breakeven price and yield for particular crops.
Range Reports – view economic results for the livestock one year at a time.
Range Breakeven - shows the breakeven price and weaning weight for the livestock.
NOTE: If there are no rangeland MUs then the range choices will be grayed as will the crop choices if there are no cropping MUs.
menu_evaluate_econ_window
Window Menu Overview

Under the Window menu are several tools for displaying items.

Overhead View – opens a small window with an rectangular outline that you can move around the small window. As you move the outline, the display of the Farm/Ranch layout will move accordingly in the Farm/Ranch Window.
Zoom – there are three options for displaying the layout.
Delete – use this to delete an object in the window. Click on, for example, an MU and then select the delete option to remove that MU.
Snap to Grid – as you draw MUs and Fields, this will help align them. If you do not want this, click on this option to un-check it.
Hide Shape Palette – this is available only if the drawing tools are on and the shape palette is displayed. This will turn off the display of the drawing tools. Click on this option to de-select it.
Options – there are two options included.
menu_window_window
Window Menu - Zoom
The Zoom sub-menu on the Window menu contains the following selections:
Normal – the normal view.
Farm Extent – this shows the entire Farm/Ranch layout in the window.
Spatial Level – this is smaller than Normal view but larger than Farm Extent view. It is useful with Spatial Display to be able to view all the Fields at the same time and in a larger display than with Farm Extent.
menu_window_zoom_window
Window Menu - Options

The Windows menu has an Options choice. This will open a dialog box for you to change two different options.

You can choose not to run the Weeds simulation. The results will have no information about weeds or their impact on crop yield. Click in the check box to turn off Weeds simulation.
If you want to change internet browsers, press the Reset Browser Information button. Select the browser you want from the list that will be displayed showing the browsers installed on your machine.
options
Help Menu
The Help menu is the same as the Help icon and has four choices. They are:
Contents – this gives access to the online Help system.
Search is currently unavailable.
Technical Support – this gives contact information for technical support on GPFARM.
About GPFARM – gives the version number of GPFARM.
menu_help_window
Load, Save, Copy Resources
Resource setups can be saved for future use, loaded from a saved file or copied to management unit(s).
All Resource tabs have a button (Copy resource name to Management Unit(s)) to copy that tab to another MU or multiple MUs within the current scenario. NOTE: only the current resource tab will be copied to the MU.
If you want to copy the information to multiple MUs answer No at the question and the Farm List screen will open. Choose which MU to copy to and then repeat the process to copy to another MU.
The Soil Tab also allows you to save the current soil setup for future use or to load an already saved soil setup and use it in the current MU setup.
The Topography tab for a Rangeland MU allows you to save the current slope profile or to load a saved slope profile.
Each Resource tab has a Load/Save/Copy button. This button applies to ALL the tabs in the resource setup and is not for just a single tab as above. Use this button to load a previously saved resource file or to save the current resource setup. You can also copy all the tabs to another management unit. If you want to copy to more than one MU, you must answer No at the question and choose the MU to copy to from the Farm List screen. You will need to repeat this process for each MU you wish to copy to.
Load, Save, Copy Operations
Load Information – use this button to load a previously saved operations setup file.

You can then either clear the spreadsheet and load the saved operations into the spreadsheet or append the loaded operations to the existing operations in the spreadsheet. You may need to edit the dates of the loaded/appended operations.

Save Information – use this button to save the current operation setup. NOTE: All information must be entered before the operation setup can be saved.
Copy Information – use this button to copy the operation setup to another MU. All information must be entered prior to copying.
You can copy to all the MUs, however, cropping MUs will be copied only to other cropping MUs and rangeland MUs will be copied only to other rangeland MUs.
If you do not want to copy to all the MUs answer No to the question and choose from the Farm List screen the MU to which you want to copy. If you want to copy to several MUs (but not to all) you will need to repeat this process for each MU to copy to.